With a heat pump, you can heat your house in a climate-friendly and efficient way with renewable energies and electricity. We explain how a heat pump works and how you can increase its efficiency.
HeizCheck: heating costs too high? Switch to a heat pump!
Before investing in a new heating system, there is a heating check: use the heating cost calculator to check your consumption and compare it with that of similar households.
Heat pump facts at a glance
- Heat pump works like reverse refrigerator
- Geothermal or environmental heat for heating with heat pumps
- Low power consumption important for the efficiency of the heat pump
- Better efficiency thanks to large radiators and good insulation
- Heat pumps can also cool
How does a heat pump work?
A heat pump works like an inverted refrigerator: Heat that cannot be used directly is extracted from the environment or the exhaust air and made usable for heating or hot water preparation. The function of an electric heat pump is always the same.
Efficiency of a heat pump
What is decisive for the quality of the heat pump is the relationship between the usable thermal energy and the energy used. Electrical energy is usually used for this. A high level of efficiency is important because a kilowatt hour (kWh) of electricity costs more than a kilowatt hour of heat energy. Electricity is also largely generated from coal and natural gas. The more efficient a heat pump is, the better it is for electricity consumption and the climate. It is even better if the electricity for the heat pump is generated via photovoltaics.
Is a heat pump worth it?
Whether a heat pump is worthwhile depends above all on the annual performance factor (SPF) that a heat pump heating system can achieve under the very specific conditions of a building. Not only does the quality of the heat source play an important role, but also the energetic condition of the house itself. In a well-insulated new building, the less efficient air-water heat pumps can also be worthwhile. In poorly insulated old buildings, on the other hand, heat pumps are usually not recommended.
Heat pump: advantages & disadvantages
The biggest advantage of electric heat pumps is that they heat with little CO2. In addition, some heat pumps can also cool.
In contrast to other heating systems, heat pumps can be used for cooling in summer. For this, the heat pump must be reversible. In addition, water-bearing ceiling heating is required for efficient cooling. In old buildings, it is housed under a ceiling suspension. There are two ways to cool:
Active cooling consumes additional power. The compressor of a reversible heat pump runs. For air heat pumps, this is even the only cooling option. However, a higher cooling capacity can be achieved in this way than with passive operation.
Passive cooling is more efficient: groundwater and groundwater heat pumps can conduct the heat from the building with their circulation pump into the underground, which is cooler than the air in summer.
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